Based on the recent excavation at the cave of Petralona it is calculated that the history of Chalkidiki goes 700.000 years back to time. According to paleontologists that studied the findings of the cave, the first controlled fire lit in Chalkidiki about 700.000 years ago. The scalp that was discovered in the cave is estimated to be 250.000 years old and gave to science a new type of human. A lot of prehistoric settlements have been discovered along the coastline. These settlements depict that about 4000 B.C. Chalkidiki was already a rich, densely populated area where art flourished and works of art graced everyday life of people.
Recorded data refer to the colony of Chalkidiki at the times of the Trojan War. However, its systematic colony of the residents of South Greece seems to begin from the 8th B.C. century. Colonists came mostly from Chalkida and Eretria. The first historical record that we have for Chalkidiki comes from Irodotos. In his scripts for the Persian wars, the father of history repeatedly mentions Chalkidiki and gives historical and topographical details. He describes the destruction of the fleet of Mardonios from a great storm in Atho, and the digging of a channel at the isthmus of the peninsula from Xerxis. Irodotos refers to all these inshore towns of Chalkidiki, where Xerxis imposed recruitment of men and gives important information about the Persian siege of Potidea and the enslavement of the residents of Olinthos from the Persian leader Artavazo. After the Persian wars (in the middle of 5th B.C century), most of the towns of Chalkidiki became members of the Athens' alliance. During the Peloponnesian war (one of the causes for its outbreak was Potidea), Chalkidiki was for many years a field of war between the Athenians and the Lakeidemonians. As a result, many of its towns were destroyed and its residents realized that in order to survive they would have to unite.
In 168 B.C. Chalkidiki, just like the rest of Macedonia, was conquered by the Romans.
At the years that followed, Roman and Italian traders and technicians settled in
its towns. In the 6th A.D. century, Chalkidiki was rummaged again, this time from
the Ounous. Between the 9th and 15th century, Chalkidiki was basically a farming
In the beginning of the 21st century, it was one of the resistance forts of the
Macedonian fight , and was also used as a warrior sanctuary. Weapons and ammunition